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They were followed by independent military contingents in loose, fluid arrangements based on bonds of lordship, family, ethnicity and language led by members of the high nobility.

The army may have numbered , including non-combatant. They travelled east by land and were cautiously welcomed to Byzantium by Alexios late in The crusade then embarked on an arduous march across Anatolia, suffering starvation, thirst and disease.

The crusaders gained experience in countering the Turkish tactics of employing lightly armoured mounted archers at the Battle of Dorylaeum.

They also developed links with local Armenians. Baldwin left with a small force to establish the County of Edessa , the first Crusader state, early in In June the crusaders gained entry to Antioch after an eight-month siege , massacring most inhabitants, including local Christians.

Kerbogha , the Atabeg of Mosul , led a relief force to the city, but Bohemond repulsed him. There was a delay of months while the crusaders decided who would keep the city.

This ended on the news that the Fatimid Egyptians had taken Jerusalem from the Seljuks. Despite his promise to Alexios, Bohemond retained Antioch and remained while Raymond led the army along the coast to Jerusalem.

They massacred the inhabitants and pillaged the city. Historians believe that contemporary accounts of the numbers killed were exaggerated, but the narrative of massacre reinforced the crusaders' reputation for barbarism.

Many crusaders now considered their pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe. Only knights and 2, infantry remained to defend Palestine.

The support of troops from Lorraine enabled Godfrey, over the claims of Raymond, to take the position of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

A year later the Lorrainers foiled an attempt by Dagobert of Pisa , the papal legate , to make Jerusalem a theocracy on Godfrey's death.

Baldwin was chosen as the first Latin king. Raymond's successors captured the city of Tripoli after his death, with the support of the Genoese.

The expansion of Antioch came to an end in with a major defeat by the Turks at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis , also known as the Field of Blood.

The limited written evidence available from before indicates the crusade was barely noticed in the Islamic world.

This was probably the result of cultural misunderstanding: the Muslims did not recognise the crusaders as religiously motivated warriors intent on conquest and settlement.

They assumed this was the latest in a long line of attacks by Byzantine mercenaries. This gave the crusaders an opportunity for consolidation before a pan-Islamic counter-attack.

The rise of Imad al-Din Zengi threatened the Franks. He became Atabeg of Mosul in , expanded his control to Aleppo and in he conquered Edessa.

Bernard of Clairvaux spread the message that the loss was the result of sinfulness. Simultaneously, the anti-Semitic preaching of the Cistercian monk, Rudolf, initiated more massacres of Jews in the Rhineland.

Zengi was murdered in uncertain circumstances. Edessa's destruction made its recovery impossible, and the objectives were unclear.

The French held the Byzantines responsible for their defeats by the Seljuks in Anatolia, while the Byzantines reiterated claims on any future territorial gains in northern Syria.

The crusaders decided to attack Damascus, breaking a long period of cooperation between Jerusalem and the city's Seljuk rulers.

Bad luck, poor tactics and a feeble five-day siege of the city led to argument; the barons of Jerusalem withdrew support and the crusaders retreated before Zengi's sons' army.

The chronicler William of Tyre related, and modern historians have concurred, that morale fell, hostility to the Byzantines grew and distrust developed between the newly arrived crusaders and those that had made the region their home.

Jerusalem demonstrated an increasing interest in expanding into Egyptian territory after the capture of Ascalon in opened the road south.

Amalric broke the alliance in a series of ferocious attacks and the Egyptians requested military support. Amalric retreated and the Fatimid caliph appointed the Sunni Shirkuh as vizier.

Saladin successfully intrigued to become Shirkuh's successor on his death in Saladin imprisoned the last Fatimids and established a Sunni regime in Egypt.

The prince died seven years later, but Saladin had already seized Damascus and much of Syria from his ward's relatives.

This force was lured into inhospitable terrain without water and routed by Saladin's forces at the Battle of Hattin.

Numerous Christian nobles were taken prisoner, including Guy. Saladin offered them the option of leaving within 40 days or remaining in peace under Islamic rule.

Jerusalem and much of Palestine quickly fell to Saladin. In August , the freed King Guy attempted to recover Acre by surrounding the city and a long stalemate ensued.

King Richard I of England travelled by sea. Philip II of France was the first king to arrive at the siege. The arrival of the French and English turned the tide in the conflict, and the Muslim garrison of Acre surrendered.

Philip considered his vow fulfilled and returned to France, leaving most of his forces behind. Richard travelled south along the Mediterranean coast and recaptured Jaffa.

Twice he advanced to within a day's march of Jerusalem, but lacked the resources to capture and defend the city.

A negotiated three-year truce allowed Frankish access to Jerusalem. This was the end of Richard's crusading career and damaged Frankish morale.

Henry died before departing on the crusade, but the arrival of the German crusaders prompted Saladin's brother, Al-Adil I to sign a five-year truce in The Italian Boniface of Montferrat replaced Theobald on the latter's premature death, as the new commander of the campaign.

They contracted with the Republic of Venice for the transportation of 30, crusaders at a cost of 85, marks. However, many choose other embarkation ports and only around 15, arrived at Venice.

Unable to fully pay the Venetians they accepted two offers. The Doge of Venice Enrico Dandolo proposed that Venice would be repaid with the profits of future conquests beginning with the seizure of the Christian city of Zara.

Innocent III excommunicated the crusaders for their capture of Zara, but quickly absolved the French.

Without ships, supplies or food the crusaders had little option than to take by force what Alexios had promised. The Sack of Constantinople involved three days pillaging churches and killing much of the Greek Orthodox Christian populance.

A council of six Venetians and six Franks partitioned the territorial gains, establishing a Latin Empire. Venice gained a maritime domain including the remaining portion of the city.

Both Baldwin and Boniface died fighting the Bulgarians , leading the papal legate to release the crusaders from their obligations. Joining King Aimery on campaign they forced al-Adil into a six-year truce.

The Latin states established were a fragile patchwork of petty realms threatened by Byzantine successor states—the Despotate of Epirus , the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond.

Thessaloniki fell to Epirus in , and Constantinople to Nicaea in Achaea and Athens survived under the French after the Treaty of Viterbo.

This period of Greek history is known as the Frankokratia or Latinokratia "Frankish or Latin rule" and designates a period when western European Catholics ruled Orthodox Byzantine Greeks.

There were repeated popular outbursts of ecstatic piety in 13th-century Western Europe such as the Children's Crusade of , when large groups of young adults and children gathered spontaneously in the belief that their innocence would lead to success where others had failed.

Few, if any, journeyed to the eastern Mediterranean. There was no immediate threat and a number of treaties had to expire first.

The crusaders attacked Egypt to break the Muslim hold of Jerusalem. Egypt was isolated from the other Islamic power centres, it would be easier to defend and was self-sufficient in food.

Damietta was captured but then returned and an eight-year truce agreed after the Franks advancing into Egypt surrendered. In he embarked on crusade, but was forced to abandon it due to illness.

This prompted his excommunication by Pope Gregory IX. Despite this Frederick launched a campaign of forceful negotiation that won the Franks most of Jerusalem, a strip of territory linking the city to Acre and an alliance with Al-Kamil , Sultan of Egypt.

When the Pope attacked Frederick's Italian possessions he returned to defend them. The Franks followed Frederick's tactics of forceful diplomacy and playing rival factions off against each other when Sultan Al-Kamil died and his family fell into disputes over the succession in Egypt and Syria.

The Mongols provided a new military threat to the Christian and Islamic worlds, sweeping west through southern Russia, Poland and Hungary; defeating the Seljuks and threatening the Crusader states.

Although predominantly pagan, some Mongols were Nestorian Christians. This gave the papacy hope they might become allies.

But when Pope Innocent IV wrote to the Mongols to question their attacks on Christians they replied demanding his total submission.

The Khwarazmians captured Jerusalem and savagely sacked it. This was the last time the Franks had the resources to raise a field army in Palestine.

As-Salah conquered almost all of the crusaders' mainland territories, confining them to a few coastal towns. In Louis led a crusade attacking Egypt and was defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah and the crusaders were captured as they retreated.

Louis and his nobles were ransomed, other prisoners were given a choice of conversion to Islam or beheading.

A ten-year truce was established and Louis remained in Syria until consolidating the Frankish position. In Egypt a power struggle developed between the Mamluks and the Ayyubid rulers.

This led to one of the Mamluk leaders, Qutuz , seizing the sultanate in and uniting with another Mamluk faction led by Baibars.

Qutuz was assassinated and Baibars assumed control. Division in the crusader states led to conflicts such as the War of Saint Sabas.

Venice drove the Genoese from Acre to Tyre where they continued trading with the Egyptians. Their army was devastated by disease, and Louis died at Tunis.

Prince Edward , the future king of England, and a small retinue arrived too late for the conflict but continued to the Holy Land.

Edward survived an assassination attempt, negotiated a ten-year truce, and then returned to manage his affairs in England. This ended the last significant crusading effort in the eastern Mediterranean.

The causes of the decline in crusading and the failure of the crusader states are multi-faceted. The nature of crusades was unsuited to the defence of the Holy Land.

Crusaders were on a personal pilgrimage and usually returned when it was completed. Although the ideology of crusading changed over time, crusades continued to be conducted without centralised leadership by short-lived armies led by independently minded potentates, but the crusader states needed large standing armies.

Religious fervour was difficult to direct and control even though it enabled significant feats of military endeavour.

Political and religious conflict in Europe combined with failed harvests reduced Europe's interest in Jerusalem.

The distances involved made the mounting of crusades and the maintenance of communications difficult. It enabled the Islamic world, under the charismatic leadership of Zengi, Nur al-Din, Saladin, the ruthless Baibars and others, to use the logistical advantages of proximity.

After the First Crusade most of the crusaders considered their personal pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe. Palestinian Christians lived around Jerusalem and in an arc stretching from Jericho and the Jordan to Hebron in the south.

Maronites were concentrated in Tripoli, the Jacobites in Antioch and Edessa. Armenians also lived in the north but communities existed in all major towns.

Central areas had a Muslim majority population, predominantly Sunni but with Shi'ite communities in Galilee.

Druze Muslims lived in the mountains of Tripoli. The Jewish population resided in coastal towns and some Galilean villages. He estimates that by that these figures had risen to Russell acknowledges that much of Anatolia was Christian or under the Byzantines and "Islamic" areas such as Mosul and Baghdad had significant Christian populations.

The Outremer was a frontier society in which a Frankish elite ruled over of a native population related to the neighbouring communities, many of whom were hostile to the Franks.

Relations between communities were controlled by the Franks. All Franks were considered free men while the native peoples lived like western serfs.

The Franks imposed officials in the military, legal and administrative systems using the law and lordships to control the natives.

Few Franks could speak more than basic Arabic. Civil disputes and minor criminality were administered by the native communities, but major offences and those involving Franks were dealt by the Frankish cour des bourgeois.

The key differentiator in status and economic position was between urban and rural dwellers.

Indigenous Christians could gain higher status and acquire wealth through commerce and industry in towns but few Muslims lived in urban areas except servants.

The Crusader States presented an obstacle to Muslim trade with the west by sea and the land routes from Mesopotamia and Syria to the urban economies of the Nile.

However, despite this commerce continued, coastal cities remained maritime outlets for the Islamic hinterland, Eastern wares were exported to Europe in unprecedented volumes.

European fleets expanded, better ships were built, navigation improved and fare paying pilgrims subsidised many voyages.

The mainly native agricultural production flourished before the fall of the First Kingdom in , but was negligible afterwards.

The Franks exported textiles, glass dyestuffs, olives, wine, sesame oil, sugar and prized Silk and imported clothing and finished goods.

After , Egyptian dinars were copied creating Jerusalem's gold bezant. Following the collapse of the First Kingdom in , trade rather than agriculture increasingly dominated the economy and western coins dominated the coinage and despite some local minting of silver pennies and coppers there is little evidence of systematic attempts to create a unified local currency.

The result was that the royal domain of the first five rulers was greater than the combined holdings of the nobility.

This gave the rulers of Jerusalem greater internal power than comparative western monarchs but without the necessary administrative machinery to govern a large realm.

Royal powers were abrogated and effectively governance undertaken locally within the feudatories. Central control that remained was exercised through the Haute Cour or High Court.

This was meetings between the king and his tenants in chief. The duty of the vassal to give counsel became a privilege until the legitimacy of the monarch depended on the agreement of the court.

The High Court consisted of the great barons and the king's direct vassals with a quorum of the king and three tenants in chief. Philip of Novara wrote We know [the laws] rather poorly, for they are known by hearsay and usage When the rural fiefs were lost the barons became an urban mercantile class whose knowledge of the law was a valuable skill and career path to higher status.

They decided on the grants of land and even granted the throne itself in and , to Conrad of Montferrat and Henry II, Count of Champagne.

In Isabella II died after giving birth to a son, Conrad , who through his mother was now legally king of Jerusalem and Frederick's heir.

In contrast to Western monarchies with powerful, with centralised bureaucracies government in Jerusalem developed in the opposite direction.

In opposition were the Ibelins, Acre, the Templars and Genoa. For twelve years the rebels held a surrogate parliament in Acre before prevailing in , leading toy a succession of Ibelin and Cypriot regents.

Three Cypriot Lusignan kings succeeded without the resources to recover the lost territory. The title of king was sold to Charles of Anjou who gained power for a short while but never visited the kingdom.

The early crusaders filled ecclesiastical positions left vacant by the Orthodox church and replaced Orthodox bishops with Latin clerics.

The Greek Orthodox monks of the Holy Sepulchre were expelled but recalled when the miracle of Easter Fire failed in their absence.

Armenians, Copts, Jacobites, Nestorians and Maronites were considered autonomous, retaining their own bishops.

Muslims were banned from living in Jerusalem and sexual relationships between Muslims and Christians was punished by mutilation.

Separate from the Frankish nobles or burgesses, the communes were autonomous political entities closely linked to their hometowns.

They monopolised foreign trade and almost all banking and shipping and aggressively extended trade privileges. Despite all efforts, the ports were unable supersede Alexandria and Constantinople as the primary regional commercia centres but the communes did compete with the monarchs and each other for economic advantage.

Power derived from the support of the communards' native cities rather than their number, which never reached more than hundreds.

There were few cultural innovations in the Outremer beyond the establishment of the military orders and the development of tactics and military architecture.

Each knight would also provide his own armed retainers. Non-noble light cavalry and infantry were known as serjants and these numbered around 5, These numbers were augmented by mercenaries such as the Turcopoles recruited from among the natives.

This was sufficient for territorial gains, but fewer than the required to maintain military domination. This defensive problem was that putting an army into the field required draining castles and cities of every able-bodied fighting man.

In the case of a defeat such as at Hattin, no one remained to resist the invaders. The Franks adopted delaying tactics when faced with a superior invading Muslim force, avoiding direct confrontation, retreating to strongholds and waiting for the Muslim army to disperse.

Muslim armies were incohesive and seldom campaigned beyond a period between sowing and harvest.

It took generations before the Muslims identified that in order to conquer the Crusader states they needed to destroy the Frankish fortresses.

This strategic change forced the crusaders away from focussing on the gaining and holding territory but rather on attacking and destroying Egypt, neutralising this regional challenge and gaining the time to improve the kingdom's demographic weaknesses.

The Christian realms had no common identity or shared history based on tribe or ethnicity. Although small, all developed an aristocratic military technique.

Many foreigners deserted because of the tolerance the Spanish demonstrated for the defeated Muslims.

For the Spanish, the Reconquista was a war of domination rather than a war of extermination. The Roman Rite was relentlessly imposed on them, and the native Christians were absorbed into mainstream Catholicism.

At this point the remaining Muslim and Jewish inhabitants were expelled from the peninsula. There were modest efforts to suppress a dualistic Christian sect called the Cathars in southern France around Tolerant feudal lords had their lands confiscated and titles forfeited.

In pressure was exerted on the city of Milan for tolerating Catharism. A crusade forced the Stedinger peasants of north-western Germany to pay tithes in The Albigensian Crusades established a precedent for popes and the Inquisition to claim their Christian opponents were heretics.

On Frederick II's death the focus moved to Sicily. But, these wars had no clear objectives or limitations making them unsuitable for crusading.

In Bernard of Clairvaux persuaded Pope Eugenius III that the Germans' and Danes' conflict with the pagan Wends was a holy war analogous to the Reconquista; he urged a crusade until all heathens were baptised or killed.

The new crusaders' motivation was primarily economic: the acquisition of new arable lands and serfs; the control of Baltic trade routes; and the abolishment of the Novgorodian merchants' monopoly of the fur trade.

The Sword Brothers were notorious for cruelty to pagans and converts alike. The Teutonic Knights were founded during the s in Palestine, but their strong links to Germany diverted efforts from the Holy Land to the Baltic.

These were fashionable events of chivalric entertainment among young aristocrats. The Knights' state survived, from under Polish suzerainty.

Prussia was transformed into a secular duchy in , and Livonia in The Ottoman Turks, located in north-eastern Anatolia, took advantage of a Byzantine civil war of — and established a strong presence in Europe.

They captured the Byzantine fortress at Gallipoli in and defeated the Serbians at the Battle of Kosovo in , winning control of the Balkans from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth.

This was further confirmed by victory over French crusaders and King Sigismund of Hungary at the Battle of Nicopolis in After the fall of Constantinople in the crusading response was largely symbolic.

One example was Duke Phillip of Burgundy's promotion of a crusade, that never materialised, at the Feast of the Pheasant.

As the military threat presented by the Turks diminished, anti-Ottoman crusading became obsolete with the Holy League in The crusaders' propensity to follow the customs of their Western European homelands meant that there were few innovations developed in the crusader states.

Three notable exceptions to this were the military orders, warfare and fortifications. The order later adding a martial element and became a much larger military order.

Military orders like the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar provided Latin Christendom's first professional armies in support of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other crusader states.

The Hospitallers and the Templars became supranational organisations as papal support led to rich donations of land and revenue across Europe.

This, in turn, led to a steady flow of new recruits and the wealth to maintain multiple fortifications in the crusader states.

In time, they developed into autonomous powers in the region. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta continues in existence to the present-day.

The Pope responded in with a series of papal bulls including Vox in excelso and Ad providam that dissolved the order on the alleged and probably false grounds of sodomy, magic and heresy.

According to the historian Joshua Prawer no major European poet, theologian, scholar or historian settled in the crusader states.

Some went on pilgrimage, and this is seen in new imagery and ideas in western poetry. Although they did not migrate east themselves, their output often encouraged others to journey there on pilgrimage.

Historians consider the crusader military architecture of the Middle East to demonstrate a synthesis of the European, Byzantine and Muslim traditions and to be the most original and impressive artistic achievement of the crusades.

Castles were a tangible symbol of the dominance of a Latin Christian minority over a largely hostile majority population. They also acted as centres of administration.

To govern the conquered territory, those who remained established four large western settlements, or Crusader states, in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli.

In , the Seljuk general Zangi, governor of Mosul, captured Edessa, leading to the loss of the northernmost Crusader state.

After Louis and Conrad managed to assemble their armies at Jerusalem, they decided to attack the Syrian stronghold of Damascus with an army of some 50, the largest Crusader force yet.

The combined Muslim forces dealt a humiliating defeat to the Crusaders, decisively ending the Second Crusade.

In , Saladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking back the important city along with a large amount of territory.

From the recaptured city of Jaffa, Richard reestablished Christian control over some of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city.

In September , Richard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.

In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinople , marked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.

Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.

The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.

The movement never reached the Holy Land. The peace treaty expired a decade later, and Muslims easily regained control of Jerusalem. This battle, known as the Seventh Crusade, was a failure for Louis.

As the Crusaders struggled, a new dynasty, known as the Mamluks, descended from former slaves of the Islamic Empire, took power in Egypt.

Under the ruthless Sultan Baybars, the Mamluks demolished Antioch in In response, Louis organized the Eighth Crusade in The initial goal was to aid the remaining Crusader states in Syria, but the mission was redirected to Tunis, where Louis died.

Edward I of England took on another expedition in This battle, which is often grouped with the Eighth Crusade but is sometimes referred to as the Ninth Crusade, accomplished very little and was considered the last significant crusade to the Holy Land.

In , one of the only remaining Crusader cities, Acre, fell to the Muslim Mamluks. Many historians believe this defeat marked the end of the Crusader States and the Crusades themselves.

Though the Church organized minor Crusades with limited goals after —mainly military campaigns aimed at pushing Muslims from conquered territory, or conquering pagan regions—support for such efforts diminished in the 16th century, with the rise of the Reformation and the corresponding decline of papal authority.

While the Crusades ultimately resulted in defeat for Europeans and a Muslim victory , many argue that they successfully extended the reach of Christianity and Western civilization.

The Roman Catholic Church experienced an increase in wealth, and the power of the Pope was elevated after the Crusades ended. Trade and transportation also improved throughout Europe as a result of the Crusades.

The wars created a constant demand for supplies and transportation, which resulted in ship-building and the manufacturing of various supplies.

After the Crusades, there was a heightened interest in travel and learning throughout Europe, which some historians believe may have paved the way for the Renaissance.

Among followers of Islam , however, the Crusaders were regarded as immoral, bloody and savage. The ruthless and widespread massacre of Muslims, Jews and other non-Christians resulted in bitter resentment that persisted for many years.

Timeline for the Crusades and Christian Holy War to c. The Crusades: LordsAndLadies. Crusades: New Advent.

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Not so for the medieval holy wars called the Crusades.

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Without ships, supplies or food the crusaders had little option than to take by force what Alexios had promised.

The Sack of Constantinople involved three days pillaging churches and killing much of the Greek Orthodox Christian populance.

A council of six Venetians and six Franks partitioned the territorial gains, establishing a Latin Empire.

Venice gained a maritime domain including the remaining portion of the city. Both Baldwin and Boniface died fighting the Bulgarians , leading the papal legate to release the crusaders from their obligations.

Joining King Aimery on campaign they forced al-Adil into a six-year truce. The Latin states established were a fragile patchwork of petty realms threatened by Byzantine successor states—the Despotate of Epirus , the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond.

Thessaloniki fell to Epirus in , and Constantinople to Nicaea in Achaea and Athens survived under the French after the Treaty of Viterbo.

This period of Greek history is known as the Frankokratia or Latinokratia "Frankish or Latin rule" and designates a period when western European Catholics ruled Orthodox Byzantine Greeks.

There were repeated popular outbursts of ecstatic piety in 13th-century Western Europe such as the Children's Crusade of , when large groups of young adults and children gathered spontaneously in the belief that their innocence would lead to success where others had failed.

Few, if any, journeyed to the eastern Mediterranean. There was no immediate threat and a number of treaties had to expire first. The crusaders attacked Egypt to break the Muslim hold of Jerusalem.

Egypt was isolated from the other Islamic power centres, it would be easier to defend and was self-sufficient in food.

Damietta was captured but then returned and an eight-year truce agreed after the Franks advancing into Egypt surrendered. In he embarked on crusade, but was forced to abandon it due to illness.

This prompted his excommunication by Pope Gregory IX. Despite this Frederick launched a campaign of forceful negotiation that won the Franks most of Jerusalem, a strip of territory linking the city to Acre and an alliance with Al-Kamil , Sultan of Egypt.

When the Pope attacked Frederick's Italian possessions he returned to defend them. The Franks followed Frederick's tactics of forceful diplomacy and playing rival factions off against each other when Sultan Al-Kamil died and his family fell into disputes over the succession in Egypt and Syria.

The Mongols provided a new military threat to the Christian and Islamic worlds, sweeping west through southern Russia, Poland and Hungary; defeating the Seljuks and threatening the Crusader states.

Although predominantly pagan, some Mongols were Nestorian Christians. This gave the papacy hope they might become allies.

But when Pope Innocent IV wrote to the Mongols to question their attacks on Christians they replied demanding his total submission.

The Khwarazmians captured Jerusalem and savagely sacked it. This was the last time the Franks had the resources to raise a field army in Palestine.

As-Salah conquered almost all of the crusaders' mainland territories, confining them to a few coastal towns. In Louis led a crusade attacking Egypt and was defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah and the crusaders were captured as they retreated.

Louis and his nobles were ransomed, other prisoners were given a choice of conversion to Islam or beheading. A ten-year truce was established and Louis remained in Syria until consolidating the Frankish position.

In Egypt a power struggle developed between the Mamluks and the Ayyubid rulers. This led to one of the Mamluk leaders, Qutuz , seizing the sultanate in and uniting with another Mamluk faction led by Baibars.

Qutuz was assassinated and Baibars assumed control. Division in the crusader states led to conflicts such as the War of Saint Sabas.

Venice drove the Genoese from Acre to Tyre where they continued trading with the Egyptians. Their army was devastated by disease, and Louis died at Tunis.

Prince Edward , the future king of England, and a small retinue arrived too late for the conflict but continued to the Holy Land.

Edward survived an assassination attempt, negotiated a ten-year truce, and then returned to manage his affairs in England. This ended the last significant crusading effort in the eastern Mediterranean.

The causes of the decline in crusading and the failure of the crusader states are multi-faceted. The nature of crusades was unsuited to the defence of the Holy Land.

Crusaders were on a personal pilgrimage and usually returned when it was completed. Although the ideology of crusading changed over time, crusades continued to be conducted without centralised leadership by short-lived armies led by independently minded potentates, but the crusader states needed large standing armies.

Religious fervour was difficult to direct and control even though it enabled significant feats of military endeavour.

Political and religious conflict in Europe combined with failed harvests reduced Europe's interest in Jerusalem. The distances involved made the mounting of crusades and the maintenance of communications difficult.

It enabled the Islamic world, under the charismatic leadership of Zengi, Nur al-Din, Saladin, the ruthless Baibars and others, to use the logistical advantages of proximity.

After the First Crusade most of the crusaders considered their personal pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe.

Palestinian Christians lived around Jerusalem and in an arc stretching from Jericho and the Jordan to Hebron in the south.

Maronites were concentrated in Tripoli, the Jacobites in Antioch and Edessa. Armenians also lived in the north but communities existed in all major towns.

Central areas had a Muslim majority population, predominantly Sunni but with Shi'ite communities in Galilee.

Druze Muslims lived in the mountains of Tripoli. The Jewish population resided in coastal towns and some Galilean villages. He estimates that by that these figures had risen to Russell acknowledges that much of Anatolia was Christian or under the Byzantines and "Islamic" areas such as Mosul and Baghdad had significant Christian populations.

The Outremer was a frontier society in which a Frankish elite ruled over of a native population related to the neighbouring communities, many of whom were hostile to the Franks.

Relations between communities were controlled by the Franks. All Franks were considered free men while the native peoples lived like western serfs.

The Franks imposed officials in the military, legal and administrative systems using the law and lordships to control the natives. Few Franks could speak more than basic Arabic.

Civil disputes and minor criminality were administered by the native communities, but major offences and those involving Franks were dealt by the Frankish cour des bourgeois.

The key differentiator in status and economic position was between urban and rural dwellers. Indigenous Christians could gain higher status and acquire wealth through commerce and industry in towns but few Muslims lived in urban areas except servants.

The Crusader States presented an obstacle to Muslim trade with the west by sea and the land routes from Mesopotamia and Syria to the urban economies of the Nile.

However, despite this commerce continued, coastal cities remained maritime outlets for the Islamic hinterland, Eastern wares were exported to Europe in unprecedented volumes.

European fleets expanded, better ships were built, navigation improved and fare paying pilgrims subsidised many voyages.

The mainly native agricultural production flourished before the fall of the First Kingdom in , but was negligible afterwards.

The Franks exported textiles, glass dyestuffs, olives, wine, sesame oil, sugar and prized Silk and imported clothing and finished goods.

After , Egyptian dinars were copied creating Jerusalem's gold bezant. Following the collapse of the First Kingdom in , trade rather than agriculture increasingly dominated the economy and western coins dominated the coinage and despite some local minting of silver pennies and coppers there is little evidence of systematic attempts to create a unified local currency.

The result was that the royal domain of the first five rulers was greater than the combined holdings of the nobility. This gave the rulers of Jerusalem greater internal power than comparative western monarchs but without the necessary administrative machinery to govern a large realm.

Royal powers were abrogated and effectively governance undertaken locally within the feudatories. Central control that remained was exercised through the Haute Cour or High Court.

This was meetings between the king and his tenants in chief. The duty of the vassal to give counsel became a privilege until the legitimacy of the monarch depended on the agreement of the court.

The High Court consisted of the great barons and the king's direct vassals with a quorum of the king and three tenants in chief. Philip of Novara wrote We know [the laws] rather poorly, for they are known by hearsay and usage When the rural fiefs were lost the barons became an urban mercantile class whose knowledge of the law was a valuable skill and career path to higher status.

They decided on the grants of land and even granted the throne itself in and , to Conrad of Montferrat and Henry II, Count of Champagne. In Isabella II died after giving birth to a son, Conrad , who through his mother was now legally king of Jerusalem and Frederick's heir.

In contrast to Western monarchies with powerful, with centralised bureaucracies government in Jerusalem developed in the opposite direction.

In opposition were the Ibelins, Acre, the Templars and Genoa. For twelve years the rebels held a surrogate parliament in Acre before prevailing in , leading toy a succession of Ibelin and Cypriot regents.

Three Cypriot Lusignan kings succeeded without the resources to recover the lost territory. The title of king was sold to Charles of Anjou who gained power for a short while but never visited the kingdom.

The early crusaders filled ecclesiastical positions left vacant by the Orthodox church and replaced Orthodox bishops with Latin clerics.

The Greek Orthodox monks of the Holy Sepulchre were expelled but recalled when the miracle of Easter Fire failed in their absence. Armenians, Copts, Jacobites, Nestorians and Maronites were considered autonomous, retaining their own bishops.

Muslims were banned from living in Jerusalem and sexual relationships between Muslims and Christians was punished by mutilation.

Separate from the Frankish nobles or burgesses, the communes were autonomous political entities closely linked to their hometowns.

They monopolised foreign trade and almost all banking and shipping and aggressively extended trade privileges.

Despite all efforts, the ports were unable supersede Alexandria and Constantinople as the primary regional commercia centres but the communes did compete with the monarchs and each other for economic advantage.

Power derived from the support of the communards' native cities rather than their number, which never reached more than hundreds.

There were few cultural innovations in the Outremer beyond the establishment of the military orders and the development of tactics and military architecture.

Each knight would also provide his own armed retainers. Non-noble light cavalry and infantry were known as serjants and these numbered around 5, These numbers were augmented by mercenaries such as the Turcopoles recruited from among the natives.

This was sufficient for territorial gains, but fewer than the required to maintain military domination.

This defensive problem was that putting an army into the field required draining castles and cities of every able-bodied fighting man.

In the case of a defeat such as at Hattin, no one remained to resist the invaders. The Franks adopted delaying tactics when faced with a superior invading Muslim force, avoiding direct confrontation, retreating to strongholds and waiting for the Muslim army to disperse.

Muslim armies were incohesive and seldom campaigned beyond a period between sowing and harvest.

It took generations before the Muslims identified that in order to conquer the Crusader states they needed to destroy the Frankish fortresses.

This strategic change forced the crusaders away from focussing on the gaining and holding territory but rather on attacking and destroying Egypt, neutralising this regional challenge and gaining the time to improve the kingdom's demographic weaknesses.

The Christian realms had no common identity or shared history based on tribe or ethnicity. Although small, all developed an aristocratic military technique.

Many foreigners deserted because of the tolerance the Spanish demonstrated for the defeated Muslims. For the Spanish, the Reconquista was a war of domination rather than a war of extermination.

The Roman Rite was relentlessly imposed on them, and the native Christians were absorbed into mainstream Catholicism. At this point the remaining Muslim and Jewish inhabitants were expelled from the peninsula.

There were modest efforts to suppress a dualistic Christian sect called the Cathars in southern France around Tolerant feudal lords had their lands confiscated and titles forfeited.

In pressure was exerted on the city of Milan for tolerating Catharism. A crusade forced the Stedinger peasants of north-western Germany to pay tithes in The Albigensian Crusades established a precedent for popes and the Inquisition to claim their Christian opponents were heretics.

On Frederick II's death the focus moved to Sicily. But, these wars had no clear objectives or limitations making them unsuitable for crusading.

In Bernard of Clairvaux persuaded Pope Eugenius III that the Germans' and Danes' conflict with the pagan Wends was a holy war analogous to the Reconquista; he urged a crusade until all heathens were baptised or killed.

The new crusaders' motivation was primarily economic: the acquisition of new arable lands and serfs; the control of Baltic trade routes; and the abolishment of the Novgorodian merchants' monopoly of the fur trade.

The Sword Brothers were notorious for cruelty to pagans and converts alike. The Teutonic Knights were founded during the s in Palestine, but their strong links to Germany diverted efforts from the Holy Land to the Baltic.

These were fashionable events of chivalric entertainment among young aristocrats. The Knights' state survived, from under Polish suzerainty.

Prussia was transformed into a secular duchy in , and Livonia in The Ottoman Turks, located in north-eastern Anatolia, took advantage of a Byzantine civil war of — and established a strong presence in Europe.

They captured the Byzantine fortress at Gallipoli in and defeated the Serbians at the Battle of Kosovo in , winning control of the Balkans from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth.

This was further confirmed by victory over French crusaders and King Sigismund of Hungary at the Battle of Nicopolis in After the fall of Constantinople in the crusading response was largely symbolic.

One example was Duke Phillip of Burgundy's promotion of a crusade, that never materialised, at the Feast of the Pheasant.

As the military threat presented by the Turks diminished, anti-Ottoman crusading became obsolete with the Holy League in The crusaders' propensity to follow the customs of their Western European homelands meant that there were few innovations developed in the crusader states.

Three notable exceptions to this were the military orders, warfare and fortifications. The order later adding a martial element and became a much larger military order.

Military orders like the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar provided Latin Christendom's first professional armies in support of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other crusader states.

The Hospitallers and the Templars became supranational organisations as papal support led to rich donations of land and revenue across Europe.

This, in turn, led to a steady flow of new recruits and the wealth to maintain multiple fortifications in the crusader states.

In time, they developed into autonomous powers in the region. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta continues in existence to the present-day.

The Pope responded in with a series of papal bulls including Vox in excelso and Ad providam that dissolved the order on the alleged and probably false grounds of sodomy, magic and heresy.

According to the historian Joshua Prawer no major European poet, theologian, scholar or historian settled in the crusader states.

Some went on pilgrimage, and this is seen in new imagery and ideas in western poetry. Although they did not migrate east themselves, their output often encouraged others to journey there on pilgrimage.

Historians consider the crusader military architecture of the Middle East to demonstrate a synthesis of the European, Byzantine and Muslim traditions and to be the most original and impressive artistic achievement of the crusades.

Castles were a tangible symbol of the dominance of a Latin Christian minority over a largely hostile majority population.

They also acted as centres of administration. Direct contact with Arab fortifications originally constructed by the Byzantines did influence developments in the east, but the lack of documentary evidence means that it remains difficult to differentiate between the importance of this design culture and the constraints of situation.

The latter led to the inclusion of oriental design features such as large water reservoirs and the exclusion of occidental features such as moats.

Typically, crusader church design was in the French Romanesque style. This can be seen in the 12th-century rebuilding of the Holy Sepulchre.

There is little trace of any surviving indigenous influence in sculpture, although in the Holy Sepulchre the column capitals of the south facade follow classical Syrian patterns.

In contrast to architecture and sculpture, it is in the area of visual culture that the assimilated nature of the society was demonstrated.

Throughout the 12th and 13th centuries the influence of indigenous artists was demonstrated in the decoration of shrines, paintings and the production of illuminated manuscripts.

Frankish practitioners borrowed methods from the Byzantines and indigenous artists and iconographical practice leading to a cultural synthesis, illustrated by the Church of the Nativity.

Wall mosaics were unknown in the west but in widespread use in the crusader states. Whether this was by indigenous craftsmen or learnt by Frankish ones is unknown, but a distinctive original artistic style evolved.

Manuscripts were produced and illustrated in workshops housing Italian, French, English and local craftsmen leading to a cross-fertilisation of ideas and techniques.

An example of this is the Melisende Psalter , created by several hands in a workshop attached to the Holy Sepulchre.

This style could have both reflected and influenced the taste of patrons of the arts. But what is seen is an increase in stylised, Byzantine-influenced content.

This extended to the production of icons , unknown at the time to the Franks, sometimes in a Frankish style and even of western saints.

This is seen as the origin of Italian panel painting. The translations made in Antioch are notable, but they are considered of secondary importance to the works emanating from Muslim Spain and from the hybrid culture of Sicily.

Muslim and Byzantine observers viewed with disdain the many women who joined the armed pilgrimages, including female fighters.

Western chroniclers indicated that female crusaders were wives, merchants, servants and sex workers. Attempts were made to control the women's behaviour in ordinances of and Misogyny meant that there was male disapproval; chroniclers tell of immorality and Jerome of Prague blamed the failure of the Second Crusade on the presence of women.

Even though they often promoted crusading, preachers would typecast them as obstructing recruitment, despite their donations, legacies and vow redemptions.

The wives of crusaders shared their plenary indulgences. The crusades, like all military endeavours of the time were costly enterprises.

Payment to participants contributed to order and discipline, was not in conflict with religious motivation and prompted innovative initiatives for the funding of campaigns.

Property was sold or mortgaged; taxation was raised at estate, clerical and national level; and charges were made for vow redemption.

The Crusades created national mythologies, tales of heroism, a few place names, and developed Europe's political topology.

Crusader symbols and anti-Islamic rhetoric are presented as an appropriate response, even if only for propaganda purposes. These symbols and rhetoric are used to provide a religious justification and inspiration for a struggle against a religious enemy.

Originally, medieval understanding of the crusades was narrowly focussed on a limited set of interrelated texts, most notably Gesta Francorum which possibly dates from as early as The Gesta was reworked by Robert of Rheims who created a papalist, northern French template for later works.

These all demonstrated a degree of martial advocacy that attributed both success and failure to God's will.

William of Tyre expanded on Albert's writing in his Historia. Completed by , William's work describes the warrior state that Outremer had become through the tensions between divine providence and humankind.

Attitudes toward the crusades during the Reformation were shaped by confessional debates and the Ottoman expansion.

The Protestant martyrologist John Foxe in his History of the Turks blamed the sins of the Catholic Church for the failure of the crusades.

He also condemned the use of crusades against those he considered had maintained the faith, such as the Albigensians and Waldensians.

The Lutheran scholar Matthew Dresser — extended this view; the crusaders were lauded for their faith but Urban II's motivation was seen as part of his conflict with Emperor Henry IV.

On this view, the crusade was flawed, and the idea of restoring the physical holy places was "detestable superstition".

His work highlights the failures of the crusades and the damage that religious conflict had inflicted on France and the church; it lists victims of papal aggression, sale of indulgences, church abuses, corruption, and conflicts at home.

Age of Enlightenment philosopher-historians such as David Hume , Voltaire and Edward Gibbon used crusading as a conceptual tool to critique religion, civilisation and cultural mores.

For them the positives effects of crusading, such as the increasing liberty that municipalities were able to purchase from feudal lords, were only by-products.

The idea that the crusades were an important part of national history and identity continued to evolve.

In scholarly literature, the term "holy war" was replaced by the neutral German kreuzzug and French croisade. The cultural consequences of growth in trade, the rise of the Italian cities and progress are elaborated in his work.

In this he influenced his student Walter Scott. In a article—"The Historiography of the Crusades"—Giles Constable attempted to categorise what is meant by "Crusade" into four areas of contemporary crusade study.

His view was that Traditionalists such as Hans Eberhard Mayer are concerned with where the crusades were aimed, Pluralists such as Jonathan Riley-Smith concentrate on how the crusades were organised, Popularists including Paul Alphandery and Etienne Delaruelle focus on the popular groundswells of religious fervour, and Generalists , such as Ernst-Dieter Hehl focus on the phenomenon of Latin holy wars.

For him the crusades are a medieval phenomenon in which the crusaders were engaged in a defensive war on behalf of their co-religionists.

The Jerusalem visit in of Kaiser Wilhelm prompted further interest, with the Egyptian Sayyid Ali al-Hariri producing the first Arabic history of the crusades.

Modern studies can be driven by political motives, such as the hope of learning from the Muslim forces' triumph over their enemies.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Crusade disambiguation and Crusader disambiguation.

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Related topics. Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, — The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups.

In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between and The bloody, violent and often ruthless conflicts propelled the status of European Christians, making them major players in the fight for land in the Middle East.

However, Byzantium had lost considerable territory to the invading Seljuk Turks. After years of chaos and civil war, the general Alexius Comnenus seized the Byzantine throne in and consolidated control over the remaining empire as Emperor Alexius I.

This marked the beginning of the Crusades. Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templar , the Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers.

These groups defended the Holy Land and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the region. These groups departed for Byzantium in August In the first major clash between the Crusaders and Muslims, Turkish forces crushed the invading Europeans at Cibotus.

Another group of Crusaders, led by the notorious Count Emicho, carried out a series of massacres of Jews in various towns in the Rhineland in , drawing widespread outrage and causing a major crisis in Jewish-Christian relations.

When the four main armies of Crusaders arrived in Constantinople , Alexius insisted that their leaders swear an oath of loyalty to him and recognize his authority over any land regained from the Turks, as well as any other territory they might conquer.

All but Bohemond resisted taking the oath. The city surrendered in late June. Despite deteriorating relations between the Crusaders and Byzantine leaders, the combined force continued its march through Anatolia, capturing the great Syrian city of Antioch in June Having achieved their goal in an unexpectedly short period of time after the First Crusade, many of the Crusaders departed for home.

To govern the conquered territory, those who remained established four large western settlements, or Crusader states, in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli.

In , the Seljuk general Zangi, governor of Mosul, captured Edessa, leading to the loss of the northernmost Crusader state.

After Louis and Conrad managed to assemble their armies at Jerusalem, they decided to attack the Syrian stronghold of Damascus with an army of some 50, the largest Crusader force yet.

The combined Muslim forces dealt a humiliating defeat to the Crusaders, decisively ending the Second Crusade. In , Saladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking back the important city along with a large amount of territory.

From the recaptured city of Jaffa, Richard reestablished Christian control over some of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city.

In September , Richard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade.

In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinople , marked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.

Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.

The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.

The movement never reached the Holy Land. The peace treaty expired a decade later, and Muslims easily regained control of Jerusalem. This battle, known as the Seventh Crusade, was a failure for Louis.

As the Crusaders struggled, a new dynasty, known as the Mamluks, descended from former slaves of the Islamic Empire, took power in Egypt.

Under the ruthless Sultan Baybars, the Mamluks demolished Antioch in In response, Louis organized the Eighth Crusade in The initial goal was to aid the remaining Crusader states in Syria, but the mission was redirected to Tunis, where Louis died.

Edward I of England took on another expedition in

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Sabaton - The Last Stand (Lyrics English & Deutsch) Venice drove the Genoese from Acre to Tyre where they continued trading with the Egyptians. Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a Kartenspiel LГјgen of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith. The awkward case of 'his or her'. The conflict in the Iberian peninsula was the only location where Muslim-Western European contact was more than Beste in Funfhaus finden. History Tradition.

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